were the materials or mine dumps left over after the process of separating the valuable mineral from the earth. As I wrote in the last post about the Apartheid Museum, men moved to work in the gold mines in Joburg from all over Africa and from other parts of the world in the latter half of the 19th century. Sadly, Booysie mentioned that this area was still a very toxic area and that nothing grows there. Because South Africa doesn't own the mines, the area remains an environmental disaster and its people must live with the results of the pollution.
People (he didn't specify whether he meant black or white but I think he meant blacks) began to turn their backs on the African National Congress (ANC) since 2009. The ANC has been the ruling party of post-apartheid South Africa on the national level, beginning with the election of Nelson Mandela in the 1994 election, the first election after the end of apartheid. The reason for the profound concern on the part of many people is the level of fraud and corruption happening at the top with the current ANC President, Jacob Zuma, according to Booysie.
The Democratic Alliance or DA was a political party representing whites when it started but it changed over time to having black leadership. The DA, now led by a young man from Soweto, is the official opposition party to the governing ANC. The cities of Joburg, Capetown, Pretoria and Port Elizabeth are all under DA control.
All but one of the colors in the country's flag were represented in the Soweto sign: the red was from the blood lost during the wars; the blue symbolized the sky and sea bordering so much of the country; the green was the link to the country's vegetation; the black represented the black people and the gold was for the country's minerals. White was the only color missing from the sign but is part of the flag; it represents the country's white people. I could see why it was not included as part of the Soweto sign!
This was still part of the huge men's hostel.
The brightly painted Orlando Towers complex in Soweto is a well-known landmark in Joburg. The towers were originally a coal-fired power station built in the 1940s to supply electricity to the residents of Joburg but not Soweto even though it was located there. The towers were decommissioned in 1998 after 56 years of service and were painted by a sign company in early 2000.
This Congress saw the declaration and adoption of the Freedom Charter which set out the aims and aspirations of the opponents of apartheid. The Charter was characterized by its opening demand, 'The People Shall Govern!' The Freedom Charter's significance in South Africa is similar to that of the Declaration of Independence. It influenced South Africa's new constitution, adopted in 1995, and is widely considered to be one of the best and most progressive in the world.
During the Soweto uprising of June 16, 1976, many demonstrators fled to Regina Mundi. The police entered the church, firing live ammunition. No one was killed, although many were injured and the church itself, as well as its furniture, decorations and religious symbols, were damaged. Steven and I were so disappointed that Booysie had not made this our first stop on our Soweto tour as the church was closed when we arrived.
Thirteen year old Pieterson became the subject of an iconic image of the 1976 Soweto uprising when a news photograph of the dying Hector being carried by another student while his sister ran next to them, was published around the world.
The photographer, Sam Nzima, was arrested as he had exposed the horrors of apartheid to the outside world. Booysie said South Africa was expelled from the 1976 Montreal Olympics because of that photo. The student who had carried Hector was harassed by the police and had to leave South Africa for his own safekeeping.